What is Spermidine?
Spermidine (C7H19N3) is a polyamine formed from putrescine, a four-carbon diamine. It is a metabolite found in the living tissues and performs various metabolic activities within the organism. As they are regulators of cell growth, division, and differentiation, they are widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical industry.
Spermidine is a naturally present chemical in all living organisms that is critically involved in the cellular homeostasis maintenance. However, an external supplement can also be given for improved health and extended lifespan. In human beings, it has been found out that the levels of spermidine reduce with age. Some research supports that external spermidine supplementation can help in controlling/reducing cardiovascular diseases and cancer to certain extent. Dietary source of spermidine includes wheat germ, soyabean, mushrooms, aged cheese, rice bran, green peas, chickpeas, broccoli, and cauliflower to name a few.
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Chemical Properties of Spermidine
Spermidine is a colorless liquid with the IUPAC name – N’-(3-aminopropyl) butane-1,4-diamine. On industrial scale, spermidine is extracted from putrescine; however, the putrescine production process involves hydrogenation of succinonitrile, which is produced by addition of hydrogen cyanide to acrylonitrile.
The common properties of spermidine are:
|Odor||Ammonia like odor|
|Molar mass||145.250 g·mol−1|
|Density||925 mg mL−1|
|Melting point||A little lesser than 25°C|
|Boiling point||129 °C|
|Solubility||145 g L−1 (at 20 °C) in water|
Spermidine is a chemical that comes with adequate levels of toxicity; hence, it is important to take all the necessary precautions while working with it. It is a flammable liquid; therefore, one should always store them away from sunlight, in a cool place. Make sure to avoid working in a place next to fire.
It is a corrosive substance that causes skin irritation and corrosion, allergic skin reactions, and eye irritation and damage (extreme cases). It is also found to be toxic to aquatic life and hazardous to aquatic environment.
Considering its toxicity, spermidine should be used responsible to avoid any kind of contamination in the environment. It should be handled and stored as per MSDS standards, and one should wear all the necessary PPE while working with the chemical.
Major Uses of Spermidine
Spermidine is used in a wide range of applications in medical, pharmaceuticals, and applied science laboratories like microbiology and biotechnology. Some of the major uses of spermidine are highlighted below:
- In intracellular experiments, a mixture of spermidine and calcium chloride are used to precipitate DNA onto microprojectiles for bombardment with a gene gun.
- In the experiments involving DNA isolation, spermidine can be used for the purification of DNA-binding proteins
- Certain research support spermidine for helping in controlling/ reducing cardiovascular diseases and cancer in humans
- Spermidine is used as a polycationic reagent to increase enzyme digestion and separate DNA molecules
- Spermidine is found to neutralize and stabilize the negative charge on DNA phosphate backbone in Taq-mediated PCR, thereby improving its uniqueness and reproducibility
- In experiments involving DNA transfer inside the cell, spermidine is used in electro-permeabilization
- Spermidine is found to increase lifespan in certain rodents like mice
- It is used in a wide range of in-vitro experiments in molecular biology laboratory
- Spermidine is used in in-vitro transcription by phage RNA polymerases
- Spermidine is commonly used for in-vitro transcription and translation by human RNA polymerase II
Manufacturers of Spermidine
The spermidine market has witnessed an exponential growth from 2014 and expected to be the same in the coming years too. The high market is due to increasing demand for the chemical in the medical and pharmaceutical sector. The increasing demand has led to global companies make huge investment in manufacturing of spermidine; the top manufacturers are mentioned below.
Key players in the global spermidine market
- Hopegen Biotechnology Development Enterprise
- Xiamen Hisunny Chemical Co.,Ltd
- Thermo Fisher Scientific
- Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd.
- XiangShui Abundant Article Chemical Industry Co., Ltd
- Alfa Aesar
- Beijing Yunbang Biosciences Co.,Ltd.
- Shanghai Arcadia Biotechnology Ltd.
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